Update of the inventory of rare diseases is assessed monthly by a medical and scientific committee within Rare diseases are registered with a preferred name and as Orphanet and further validated by consulted experts zithromax 100mg visa what causes antibiotic resistance yahoo. This number is never re-used cheap 100 mg zithromax with mastercard antibiotics effective against strep throat, so it is English and is translated into other languages cheap zithromax 100 mg on-line antibiotics loss of taste. This is due to: Preferred names and synonyms of diseases are listed Obsolescence of entries (e. In the case of duplicates, the nomenclature of the obsolete entry has been added to the rare disease listed here. The content of this Orphanet Report Series represents the views of the author only and is his/her sole responsibility; it can not be considered to reflect the views of the European Commission and/or the Consumers, Health, Agriculture and Food Executive Agency or any other body of the European Union. The European Commission and the Agency do not accept any responsibility for use that may be made of the information it contains. They are far away from major markets, often with small populations spread across many islands and vast distances, and are at the forefront of climate change and its impacts. Because of this, much research has focused on the challenges and constraints faced by Pacifc Island countries, and fnding ways to respond to these. This paper is one part of the Pacifc Possible series, which takes a positive focus, looking at genuinely transformative opportunities that exist for Pacifc Island countries over the next 25 years and identifes the region s biggest challenges that require urgent action. Realizing these opportunities will often require collaboration not only between Pacifc Island Governments, but also with neighbouring countries on the Pacifc Rim. The fndings presented in Pacifc Possible will provide governments and policy-makers with specifc insights into what each area could mean for the economy, for employment, for government income and spending. At the macroeconomic level, good health increases worker productivity and reduces absenteeism; increases educational learning and the returns from investing in education; and reduces or postpones the use of medical resources freeing up financial space for other purposes (D. For example, global life expectancy for both sexes increased from around 65 years in 1990 to 71 years in 2013. As shown in table 1, the Pacific contains seven of the top ten diabetes-prevalent countries in the world. Table 1 Prevalence Rates of Diabetes: Top Ten Countries in the World Ranking Country Prevalence of diabetes, as percentage of 2079 year olds, in 2015 (age adjusted) 1 Tokelau 30 2 Nauru 24. The first is the interaction between two major demographic trends, as illustrated in figure 2. Most Pacific countries have relatively high total fertility rates and low contraceptive prevalence rates that are more akin to the global average for least developed countries. In figure 2, the absolute population growth is largely driven by Papua New Guinea, but the trends are similar for most Pacific countries. In addition, the share of those aged 60 and older 2 has begun to increase and is expected to grow very rapidly in the coming years. Dietary risk factors also constitute the highest behavioral risk factors for death due to diabetes. Low physical activity imposes significant risk of death caused by cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. Tobacco smokers lose at least one decade of life expectancy compared to those who never smoked (Jha et al. Tonga and Samoa have the highest obesity rates (58 percent and 54 percent, respectively). School age obesity and overweight percentages are also high in many countries (Anderson, 2013a). Other trends and risk factors also point to a substantial worsening of the situation. The share of public health expenditure is growing for most countries in the Pacific, raising questions about long-term financial sustainability. This pattern is consistent with the global trend in which most countries increase public health expenditure as their economies and financial resources 6 grow. All of this raises the question as to whether the expansion of public health expenditure as a share of the economy is financially sustainable. Health expenditure is already absorbing a significant and growing share of government expenditure. Thus, the financial and political sustainability of continuing increasing public expenditure in health become very important. To put this chart in perspective, it is worth noting that only nine of 61 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa with high health burdens allocate 15 percent of government expenditure to the health sector, a goal set as part of the Abuja Declaration in 2001. Four countries in the Pacific have exceeded that percentage, and all countries in the Pacific exceed the global public health expenditure average of 6. Several countries therefore support overseas referrals to Australia, Fiji, New Zealand, India or elsewhere to receive specialized medical care. The government usually pays for the travel, as well as hospital and treatment costs (which can be for an extended period) of the patient and, in some instances, accompanying family members. The public policy and public financing challenge is to ensure such schemes are cost-effective compared to alternative use of the finances. The effective management of these programs is difficult, especially for smaller island countries. Recent research (details available on request) found that over one-third of the government health budget can be allocated to overseas referrals for the benefit of around one percent of the population. An earlier study by the Ministry of Health in Samoa noted that the overseas treatment program absorbed 15 percent of total public health expenditure in 2009/10, to the private benefit of less than 0. The overseas treatment program absorbed 11 percent of total public health funding in 2008/09, and this had grown to 15 percent by 2009/10. Diabetes is usually a life-long disease and can have disabling complications including blindness and amputations. In brief, government funding for diabetes-related insulin was simply unaffordable and unsustainable. While dialysis clinics in the Pacific are generally less expensive than overseas referrals, dialysis raises some fundamental questions about the affordability and financial sustainability of dialysis treatment in the Pacific context (see Box 1). This raises questions of equity and opportunity cost as other, higher impact interventions could be provided for the amount of resources currently allocated to dialysis patients. It is difficult to determine the gender and socio-economic profile of the 116 patients or whether there is equitable access to dialysis treatment from public sources. Finally, and importantly, the overall affordability and financial sustainability of the dialysis 9 program is questionable. Source: National Kidney Foundation of Samoa Annual Report 2013/14 and 2014/15 (National Kidney Foundation of Samoa, 2015). If young children are taken out of school to look after a relative with diabetic blindness then the possibility for the next generation to improve their own living standards is compromised. There are particularly adverse long-term social effects if young girls are taken out of school to look after sick relatives (Hill & King, 1995). This is a particular problem in Asia where out-of- pocket expenditures are high, and can lead to impoverishment. Out-of-pocket expenditure is much less of a problem in the Pacific where government health expenditure absorbs most of the burden. Kiribati, Samoa, and Solomon Islands are near to the middle-income average burden in 2030.

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Its pathogenic role in chronic type B gastritis and gastric cancer have been established zithromax 500 mg overnight delivery antibiotic resistance research articles, and its role in nonulcer dyspepsia is now widely investigated cheap 500 mg zithromax with mastercard am 7200 antimicrobial. All 50 patients had endoscopic abnormalities; 37 with gastritis effective zithromax 100 mg infection without antibiotics, 5 with gastric cancer; 3 with duodenitis, 3 with duodenal ulcer, and 2 with gastric gastric ulcer. Regarding the sex distribution, there were more males (31 males and 19 females) in the study group. All the patients with duodenitis, duodenal ulcer and gastric ulcer had chronis antral gastritis. We undertook a cross-sectional survey comprising 3325 schoolchildren from 13 primary school and 164 non enrolled school age children from neighboring quarters in Tharketa and Mingalardon townships of Yangon during December 1993. Height and weight of the children were measured and a total of 944 stool samples, including 148 non- enrolled children, were examined for the presence of intestinal parsites. Expressing the nutritional status as standard deviation scores for weight for height, the prevalence of wasting among 5-10 years non-enrolled school-age children was 19. In addition, non enrolled school age children had higher than school children in the infection rates of Ascaris lumbricoides (66. The policy implicating of this study is that health and nutritional status of non enrolled school aged children needs to be promoted and this should be partly solved by the provision of regular and periodic mass chemotherapy against the nutrition influencing major intestinal parasitoses. To this end, diarrhoea with subsequent childhood malnutrition, which is prioritized as the fourth national health problem in Myanmar and which demands worldwide concern was selected for a qualitative/quantitative study to assess the effectiveness of health education on the perception and practice of mother regarding diarrhoea. A sample of 345 mothers was selected by systematic random sampling method from a population who had been given self-care sessions. Regardless of the age or educational status most have good knowledge on diarrhoea and its home care procedure (89%). However, maturity, educational status and experience are attributes for the ability to translate knowledge into good practice as 83. This study illustrates the value of primary education in acquiring knowledge of health educational messages. Its also reveals the importance of technical skill of health educators in structuring messages for the public in order to materialize change in the attitude of community and ensure its commitment nd mobilization. Research findings since 1980 on Escherichia coli as an etiologic agent responsible for diarrhoeal diseases in Myanmar are reviewed and presented. The incidence and seasonality of Escherichia coli diarrhea in community and hospital based settings, in adults and children were reported. The review also consisted of studies on pathogenesis of Escherichia coli and on plasmid profiles. They are all sensitive to nalidixic acid but 97 percent to gentamycin, 96 percent to sisomycin and 95 percent to tobramycin respectively. It was observed that one case from diarrhoea cases showed alpha haemolytic activity; none of the control cases showed any haemolytic activity; and 3 cases of urinary tract infection showed beta haemolytic activity. Simultaneously, a set of questions was filled to ascertain the diarrhoea and motion of diarrhoea of children. Random samples of 238 males and 158 females children of age ranging from one month to ten years old were included in this study. From the cases detected, the age range was from ten months to five years and the duration of illness was from 3 to 30 days. It was then serotyped using O antisera by test tube serial dilution technique and found that 33 cases showed agglutination. Most of them were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Fecal leukocytes were identified under a high power microscope by wet mounting of methylene blue staining method. Those cells clearly identified with either round nucleus or as polymorphonuclear were noted and degenerated cells that could not be clearly identified were ignored. The bacterial pathogens and protozoal pathogens were identified by standard methods. Fecal leukocytes were present 114 Bibliography of Research Findings on Gastrointestinal Diseases in Myanmar in 31. The association between the presence of fecal leukocytes and isolated pathogens from the stools was analyzed. It was found that fecal leukocytes were seen in stools which are associated with shigella (25%), Shigella and Entamoeba histolytica 971. A total of 1805 isolates 115 Bibliography of Research Findings on Gastrointestinal Diseases in Myanmar of E. It was serotyped by using O antisera using test tube terial dilution technique and observed that 93 isolates showed agglutination. The ingredients (24 plants) present in it were selected singly and tested for their antibacterial activities. A total of 35 strains of bacteria (Escherichia coli=11; Staphylococcus aureus=3; Salmonella species=7; Shigella species=4; Vibrio cholerae=7 and one species each of Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus morganil) were chosen for testing. Among the 23 plants tested, they were found to be active on one, two or more of the bacteria tested with different patterns 328 Mar Mar Nyein; T. It was also noted that Salmonella and Plesiomonas isolation rates were higher in the control group. Antibiotic susceptibility test revealed that these shigellae were resistant to ampicillin (84 per cent), chloramphenicol (76 per cent). From the above cases, 272 cases were also performed for the isolation of other aetiologic agents and observed that Shigella isolated from 3 cases; Vibrio species were isolated from 2 cases; and Plesiomonas shigelloides was isolated from 3 cases respectively. Adherence cell assay was done by using Lab Tek chamber slides seeded with Hep- 2 cells. Thus a study was conducted on 2522 Escherichia coil isolates from 501 diarrhoeal cases and 374 control cases from the Intakaw survey. Enterotoxigenic stains were isolated from 91 cases of diarrhoea ad from 29 control cases. A total of 923 cases of diarrhoea and 932 cases of control were included in this study. They were Vibrio cholerae O1 (21 cases) and Vibrio cholerae O139 (136 cases) from diarrhoea case attending the Infectious disease Hospital during 29-9-98 to 29-10-98. Salmonella typhi (38cases) and Escheriachia coli (15 cases) from cases with high fever for more than five days admitted to Yangon Children s Hospital during 27-8-98 to 17-8-2000. Biopsy findings of gastric ulcers and, operative findings st of some of the cases were recorded. It was a prospective study of 6 months-period from 1 th April 1994 to 30 September 1994. There were 35 patients with radiologically diagnosed ulcer, 11 cases have gastric and 24 cases have duodenal ulcers. Gastric ulcers are more commonly found at the distal 119 Bibliography of Research Findings on Gastrointestinal Diseases in Myanmar part the stomach. The diagnostic radiographic features of duodenal, and both benign and malignant gastric ulcers are studied and discussed in detail.

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Also 100mg zithromax with mastercard antibiotic prophylaxis joint replacement, once a document is in electronic format order zithromax 500 mg antibiotics for acne bactrim, changes and additions can easily be made that further distance the content from the more fixed print version generic 100 mg zithromax visa antibiotic resistant bronchitis. In particular, do not cite a document as if it were a print one when the electronic version was used. Introduction xiii Reference Lists Versus In-Text References References are presented in two ways in medical publications. Within the text of a publication, individual references are presented in an abbreviated format that refers back to the list. For example, if a reference by Zelinski is the first one referred to in the text, then the Zelinski reference is number one in the list. In the citation-name system, numbers are also used in the text to refer to the reference list. Both the citation-sequence and citation-name systems format parts of references in the same order that they are found in Citing Medicine. In the name-year system the date of publication is taken out of order and placed after the author or after the title if there is no author. To accommodate those users who prefer using the name-year system, instructions are provided in each chapter in the Special Rules under "Options for date of publication. Acknowledgments The author wishes to acknowledge the many individuals who worked so tirelessly to bring this entire huge publication project to fruition: Dan Wendling - for his electronic publishing expertise. Peggy Morrison (Hendrix College, Conway, Arkansas) - for consultation with citation problems. Some of the changes in that revision addressed the then new and evolving content appearing on the Internet. Citations are slightly different between books on the Internet, databases on the Internet, and Web sites, and different in print and electronically depending on if a smaller section is a contribution to or just a part of the whole. As the Internet evolves, a lot of content today is created directly for the Internet, not reformatted from print materials. Materials that started out as books on the Internet have sometimes become more database-like than book-like, searched to find the relevant information rather than read as whole books or chapters. Does it still make sense to follow publisher information for a Web site or book or single database on the Internet with a semicolon, but to end the publisher information for serial databases and retrieval systems with a period? Today Internet resources may not readily provide information on who is responsible for the content, and where that person or organization may be. For example, a site may provide an organization name, but have no indication of where that organization is geographically. Authors can spend hours searching for this information to include it in brackets, or choose the allowable [publisher unknown], [place unknown], etc. Perhaps it is time to rethink the necessary information to identify a cited work today, and to better standardize citations across different media and publication types. Authorship, titles, and dates (content created or published, revised, and cited if on the Internet) are still crucial but what else is essential? In addition, is it possible to apply the same order and punctuation to all references? Print materials are still used and need consideration; however, electronic resources prevail and citing these materials needs to be simplified. Backus / Joyce Backus Associate Director for Library Operations National Library of Medicine Foreword xv Foreword The Internet has fundamentally changed the publishing model that authors, editors and publishers have followed for centuries. Information that took months or years to publish, edit and distribute in print is now produced and available to the public worldwide on an accelerated schedule. Despite changes brought by technology, the need to accurately cite the source of information for scholarly publication remains. And, while the need to cite remains, the challenges of collecting and reporting accurate, lasting citation information have increased tremendously. Electronic publishing creates new issues of impermanence that paper did not present. With this publication, Citing Medicine, the National Library of Medicine strives to provide those charged with capturing an accurate scholarly citation with a guide to do so in this new era of electronic information, both permanent and ephemeral. These same rules and examples can be used for magazines and other types of periodicals. Journal Articles Sample Citation and Introduction Citation Rules with Examples Examples B. Parts of Journal Articles Sample Citation and Introduction Citation Rules with Examples Examples C. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Journal Articles The general format for a reference to a journal article, including punctuation: Examples of Citations to Journal Articles 4 Citing Medicine By tradition, the rules for formatting references to journal articles permit greater abbreviation compared to books: Journal references omit information on place of publication and publisher, whereas book references carry these details. This brevity in citing journal articles stems from the need to conserve space in printed bibliographies and the early databases. Following are some important points concerning citing journal articles: Cite the journal name that was used at the time of publication. Too many variations in type styles may actually make the reference harder to read. Running headers or footers may not carry the official title of a journal and date and issue information may be missing from these locations. Citation Rules with Examples for Journal Articles Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R after the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O after the name means it is optional. Author (R) | Author Affiliation (O) | Article Title (R) | Article Type (O) | Journal Title (R) | Edition (R) | Type of Medium (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Supplement/Part/Special Number to a Date (R) | Volume Number (R) | Supplement/Part/Special Number to a Volume (R) | Issue Number (R) | Supplement/Part/Special Number to an Issue (R) | Location (Pagination) (R) | Physical Description (O) | Language (R) | Notes (O) Author for Journal Articles (required) General Rules for Author List names in the order they appear in the text Enter surname (family or last name) first for each author Journals 5 Capitalize surnames and enter spaces within surnames as they appear in the document cited on the assumption that the author approved the form used. This rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry Division. American College of Surgeons, Committee on Trauma, Ad Hoc Subcommittee on Outcomes, Working Group. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Pediatric Emergency Medicine; American College of Emergency Physicians, Pediatric Committee. When possible follow a non-English name with a translation, placed in square brackets. Follow the same rules used for author names, but end the list of names with a comma and the specific role, that is, editor or translator. New accreditation product approved for systems under the ambulatory and home care programs. Separate the surname from the given name or initials by a comma; follow initials with a period; separate successive names by a semicolon. Pharmacological treatment of congestive heart failure in Canada: a description of care in five provinces. Journal article with organization as author, with subsidiary part of the organization included 6. Journal article with multiple organizations as author, with subsidiary part of the organization included 8.

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Disqualifications buy generic zithromax online antimicrobial jackets, vacation of office purchase cheap zithromax on-line virus quarantine meaning, filling of vacancies and declaration of interest 7 order zithromax line virus 1980 imdb. Prohibition on the sale of medicines which are subject to registration and are not registered 15. Prohibition on sale of medicines which do not comply with prescribed requirements and furnishing of information regarding medicines to the council 20. Publication of information relating to medicine, Scheduled substance or medical device 22C. Minister may prohibit the manufacture, sale or use of certain veterinary medicines 37. Short title Schedule 1 Schedule 2 Schedule 3 Schedule 4 Schedule 5 Schedule 6 Schedule 7 Schedule 8 Schedule 9 1. Establishment, powers and functions of Medicines Control Council (1) There is hereby established a council to be known as the Medicines Control Council, which may exercise the powers and shall perform the functions conferred upon or assigned to the council by this Act. Constitution of council The council shall consist of so many members, but not more than 24, as the Minister may from time to time determine and appoint. Period of office and remuneration of members of the council (1) A member of the council shall, subject to the provisions of section 6(3), be appointed for a period of five years but a new council shall be appointed within six months after the date of commencement of the Medicines and Related Substances Control Amendment Act, 1997. Chairman and vice-chairman (1) One of the members of the council shall be designated by the Minister as chairman of the council and another member shall be designated by the Minister as vice-chairman to act as chairman during the absence of the chairman. Quorum, majority decision and chairman s casting vote (1) A majority of all the members of the council shall form a quorum for any meeting of the council. Appointment of executive committee and other committees (1) The council may appoint - (a) subject to the approval of the Minister, from among its members an executive committee; and [Para. Appointment of Registrar and Deputy Registrar of Medicines (1) The Minister may, after consultation with the council, appoint a Registrar and one or more Deputy Registrars or revoke such an appointment. Medicines register The registrar shall keep in the prescribed form a register, to be known as the medicines register, in which he shall register all medicines the registration of which has been approved by the council, and in which he shall enter all such particulars in regard to such medicines and the holder of the certificate of registration in respect of such medicines as are required by this Act to be entered therein. Prohibition on the sale of medicines which are subject to registration and are not registered (1) Save as provided in this section or sections 21 and 22A, no person shall sell any medicine which is subject to registration by virtue of a resolution published in terms of subsection (2) unless it is registered. Registration of medicines (1) Every application for the registration of a medicine shall be submitted to the registrar in the prescribed form and shall be accompanied by the prescribed particulars and samples of the relevant medicine and by the prescribed registration fee. Amendment of entries in register (1) The entry made in the register with respect to any medicine may on application by the holder of the certificate of registration issued in respect of such medicine be amended by the registrar with the approval of the council. Transfer of certificates of registration (1) A certificate of registration may with the approval of the council be transferred by the holder thereof to any other person. Measures to ensure supply of more affordable medicines The Minister may prescribe conditions for the supply of more affordable medicines in certain circumstances so as to protect the health of the public, and in particular may- (a) notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in the Patents Act 1978 (Act No. Cancellation of registration (1) If the council - (a) is of the opinion that any person has failed to comply with any condition subject to which any medicine has been registered; or (b) is of the opinion that any medicine does not comply with any prescribed requirement; or (c) is of the opinion that it is not in the public interest that any medicine shall be available to the public, the council shall cause notice in writing to be given accordingly by the registrar to the holder of the certificate of registration issued in respect of that medicine. Labels and advertisements (1) No person shall sell any medicine or Scheduled substance unless the immediate container or the package in which that medicine or Scheduled substance is sold bears a label stating the prescribed particulars. Bonusing No person shall supply any medicine according to a bonus system, rebate system or any other incentive scheme. Marketing of medicines The Minister shall after consultation with the pharmaceutical industry and other stakeholders, make regulations relating to the marketing of medicines, and such regulations shall also provide for an enforceable Code of Practice. Prohibition on sale of medicines which do not comply with prescribed requirements and furnishing of information regarding medicines to the council (1) No person shall sell any medicine unless it complies with the prescribed requirements. Publication or distribution of false advertisements concerning medicines (1) No person shall - (a) publish or distribute or in any other manner whatsoever bring to the notice of the public or cause or permit to be published or distributed or to be so brought to the notice of the public any false or misleading advertisement concerning any medicine; or [Para. Council may authorize sale of unregistered medicine for certain purposes (1) The council may in writing authorize any person to sell during a specified period to any specified person or institution a specified quantity of any particular medicine which is not registered. Control of medicines and Scheduled substances (1) Subject to this section, no person shall sell, have in his or her possession or manufacture any medicine or Scheduled substance, except in accordance with the prescribed conditions. Period of validity and renewal of licence A licence issued under section 22C shall be valid for the prescribed period but may be renewed on application in the prescribed manner and before the prescribed time or such later time as the Director-General or the council, as the case may be, may allow and on payment of the prescribed fee. Pricing committee (1) The Minister shall appoint, for a period not exceeding five years, such persons as he or she may deem fit to be members of a committee to be known as the pricing committee. Purchase and sale of medicines by wholesalers (1) (a) No wholesaler shall purchase medicines from any source other than from the original manufacturer or from the primary importer of the finished product. Disposal of undesirable medicines (1) If the council is of the opinion that it is not in the public interest that any medicine shall be made available to the public, it may - (a) by notice in writing transmitted by registered post to any person direct that person; or (b) by notice in the Gazette direct any person, to return any quantity of such medicine which he has in his possession to the manufacturer thereof or (in the case of any imported medicine) to the importer concerned or to deliver or send it to any other person designated by the council. Privileges of council and committees The council or a committee appointed under section 9(1), 22G(1) or 24(1) or any member of the council or of any such committee shall not be liable in respect of anything done in good faith under this Act. Inspectors (1) The Director-General may authorize such persons as inspectors, as he may consider necessary for the proper enforcement of this Act. Analysts, pharmacologists and pathologists The Director-General may grant such authority to such analysts, pharmacologists and pathologists as he may consider necessary for the proper enforcement of this Act. Powers of inspectors (1) An inspector may, at all reasonable times- (a) enter upon- (i) any place or premises from which- (aa) a person authorized under this (Act to compound or dispense medicines or scheduled substances; (bb) the holder of a licence as contemplated in section 22C(1)(b): (cc) the holder of a certificate of registration of a medicine, conducts business. Offences Any person who - (a) obstructs or hinders any inspector in the exercise of his or her powers or the performance of his or her duties under this Act; or [Para. Penalties (1) Any person who is convicted of an offence referred to in section 29 shall be liable to a fine, or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding 10 years. Funds of council (1) The funds of the council shall consist of- (a) State funds received through the Department of Health; (b) fees raised and interest on overdue fees; (c) money accruing to the council from any other source. Delegation of powers (1) The Minister may in writing authorise the Director-General or any officer of the Department of Health to exercise any of the powers conferred upon the Minister by this Act other than the powers referred to in sections 3, 24(1) and 35, or to exercise or perform any of the duties or functions conferred or imposed on the Minister in terms of this Act. Operation of Act in relation to other laws The provisions of this Act shall be in addition to and not in substitution for any other law which is not in conflict with or inconsistent with this Act. Short title This Act shall be called the Medicines and Related Substances Act, 1965. Milano scientifc landscape, and therefore confrmed the need Via Celoria 16 20133 Milano Italy for their continuation. Below: (left) Advanced approaches to high intensity laser-driven ion acceleration, see page 123. Examples and specifc topics 128 Annexes 145 Foreword l l l Nuclear physics is a coin that has two sides: basic research and applications. Without basic 3 research there would be little to be applied; applications resulting from basic research contribute to the wealth and health of society. Modern medicine benefts tremendously from nuclear physics, both for diagnosis and for therapy. The input received from the community was incorporated, resulting in the report now at hand. In particular it was stated ing the mission of this expert committee of the that further development of the nuclear physics European Science Foundation. One important question in this con- ety of related techniques and applications such nection is: how can nuclear physics techniques as those in medicine which have considerable improve medical diagnostics and contribute to impact on society. It is on this specifc question The development of nuclear physics since that we have decided to focus and thus to issue the first discovery of the atomic nucleus by this report prepared by a group of distinguished Rutherford in the early 20th century has been expert researchers, who have contributed a great intimately tied to the development of new detec- deal and at a high level, to answer to these key tion techniques, accelerators and to theoretical questions.

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Low risk Baseline characteristics of participants be- tween groups was similar with no signicant differences noted Co-interventions avoided or similar? Low risk Participants were allowed to supplement the trial medications with Tramadol liquid buy zithromax 250 mg free shipping antibiotics for uti for male. In the treatment group purchase 250 mg zithromax free shipping virus 68 florida, these included unpleasant local heat sensation in two participants and pruritus in one participant Risk of bias Bias Authors judgement Support for judgement Random sequence generation (selection Low risk Randomization completed by computer- bias) ized randomization list 250 mg zithromax with mastercard antibiotic resistance week. Chrubasik 2010 (Continued) Blinding (performance bias and detection Low risk Participants were randomized to treatment bias) groupswith interventionand placebomed- All outcomes - patients? Blinding (performance bias and detection Low risk Outcome assessment unblinded but un- bias) likely to inuence outcomes All outcomes - outcome assessors? Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias) Low risk There were seven participants who with- All outcomes - drop-outs? Low risk Baseline characteristics of participants be- tween groups was similar with no signi- cant differences noted Co-interventions avoided or similar? Period: 15 days Participants Twenty participants allocated to Brazilian arnica gel (N = 10) or placebo gel (N = 10). All participants went through a screening process coordinated by the physiotherapist responsible for the orthopaedics, traumatol- ogy, and rheumatology sector of the clinic. After screening, participants were submitted to medical evaluations to diagnose the nature of their lumbago before being allowed to participate in the research program. Secondary outcome: lumbar exibility, as determined by the modied Schober method Notes Total quality score: 5/12 Adverse effects: nothing reported. Risk of bias Bias Authors judgement Support for judgement Random sequence generation (selection High risk No method of randomization described. Blinding (performance bias and detection Low risk Participants were blinded to treatment group bias) and were unaware of which compound was All outcomes - patients? Low risk There were no signicant differences noted in baseline comparisonsbetweenthe placeboand intervention group Co-interventions avoided or similar? Circulatory and laboratory variables were not affected by either treatment Risk of bias Bias Authors judgement Support for judgement Random sequence generation (selection Low risk Randomization was computer generated. Frerick 2003 (Continued) Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias) Low risk There were seventy withdrawals in the All outcomes - drop-outs? Low risk With the exception of slightly more fe- male participants in the placebo group, the groups were comparable Co-interventions avoided or similar? Period: ve days Participants 120 patients allocated to Kytta-Salbe (a cream containing Comfrey root extract) (N = 60) or a matched placebo cream (N = 60). In the treatment group, two participants experienced headaches and one participant experienced pruritus. Blinding (performance bias and detection Low risk The trial medication and placebo ointments bias) were similar in appearance All outcomes - patients? Blinding (performance bias and detection Low risk The clinicians were blinded to treatment bias) group. Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias) Low risk All participants completed baseline to end of All outcomes - drop-outs? Low risk Groups were well balanced at baseline, with slightly more female participants than males Co-interventions avoided or similar? No other analgesic, anti-inammatory drug or physical treatment was allowed during the 12-week period. Methodofparticipantsselection:clinicalexamination,standardradiologicalexamination of the lumber spine, routine laboratory tests Interventions Rado-Salil ointment (containing 17. Local erythema and burning, three in the Rado-Salil group Risk of bias Bias Authors judgement Support for judgement Random sequence generation (selection Unclear risk The exact method used for randomization bias) was not described. Ginsberg 1987 (Continued) Blinding (performance bias and detection Low risk Participants were given either a treatment bias) ointment or a placebo that are identical in All outcomes - patients? Blinding (performance bias and detection Low risk Outcome assessments unblinded but un- bias) likely to inuence outcomes All outcomes - outcome assessors? Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias) Low risk No withdrawals noted in the trial. Low risk Participants were given paracetamol tablets in addition to study medication or placebo. Period: one plaster per day at maximum pain site for four to 12 hours for three weeks Participants One hundred and fty-four participants were randomly allocated to a placebo plaster group (N = 77) and a capsicum plaster group (N = 77). A total 22 participants were excluded due to premature discontinuation of the treatment (N = 19) failure to meet the inclusion criteria (N = 2) or unauthorized concurrent treatment (N = 1). Matched placebo plaster Outcomes Primary outcome measure: Arhus Low Back Rating Scale. Secondary outcome measures: global assessment of efcacy and tolerance by physician and patient Notes Total quality score: 6/12 Adverse events: a total of 24 adverse events were reported (C = 15; P = 9). The C group had ve cases of severe adverse events (inammatory contact eczema, urticaria, minute haemorrhagic spots, and vesiculation or dermatitis) and the P group had two such cases (vesiculation or allergic dermatosis). Blinding (performance bias and detection Low risk Study medication and placebo were identi- bias) cal in appearance. Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias) Low risk Out of 154 participants, 22 were excluded All outcomes - drop-outs? Krivoy 2001 Methods Thirty-ve participants randomized to two groups and a further 16 participants acted as controls. Period: four weeks Participants Fifty-one participants with 19 in the Salix alba group, 16 in a placebo group, and 16 in an acetylsalicylate group. Blinding (performance bias and detection Low risk Participants were blinded from treatment bias) groupallocation,andstudymedicationand All outcomes - patients? Krivoy 2001 (Continued) Blinding (performance bias and detection Low risk Outcome assessors were unblinded. How- bias) ever knowing the outcome of interest, All outcomes - outcome assessors? Low risk The groups were similar in baseline mea- suresexcept gender; there were more female participants in the placebo group (P = 0. Low risk Participantswere disallowed the use of anti- inammatory drugs within the trial pe- riod. Period: seven days Participants One hundred and sixty-one participants were randomly allocated to either group. The trial medications were not available to the providersinthe trial country at the time and all stakeholders assumed both medica- tions held active ingredients Blinding (performance bias and detection Low risk This was a double-blinded trial. While bias) there were reservations with the blinding All outcomes - outcome assessors? Low risk Group comparison was similar with no sig- nicant differences noted between groups at baseline Co-interventions avoided or similar? Low risk Anti-inammatory drugs were disallowed during the trial phase with paracetamol used as an emergency medication Compliance acceptable? Rapid improvement and three appli- cations per day may have inuenced non- compliance.