In this way purchase prednisone overnight delivery allergy symptoms not responding to medication, his Medical Humanities program has sought to help students refect on their identity discount 40 mg prednisone with amex allergy medicine for kids, their role in society and larger cultural patterns as they face the issues mundane and profound of their chosen profession buy cheap prednisone 40mg on-line kinds of allergy shots. Kohn s approach helps turn a young doctor like Bryan Sisk into a different type of physician: one who is not only a scientist, but a human being, as well. He found that the group writing exercises, thought-provoking speakers and the wide range of arts and media that made up his training in humanities at Lerner have given him the ability to cope better with his patients feelings and his own. The following best practices are important considerations when developing and implementing programs that bring together the arts and culture and the health and human services sectors: Understanding context. Before embarking on an arts and health program, it is essential for all parties involved to develop a solid understanding of what populations will be served, what their specifc needs are and what available resources exist for implementing the program. It is essential that arts and culture practitioners recognize the unique strengths, challenges and backgrounds of each participant, as well as the resources and limitations of each healthcare setting. Funding arts and health programs can be challenging in light of lower levels of available philanthropic support, limitations on what types of activities are covered by insurance, and rising healthcare costs. The formation of strategic alliances can help broaden the base of philanthropic support, while research can provide evidence that documents the medical costs savings and other benefts associated with such interventions. In order to achieve full integration of, and participation in, arts and health activities, it is important to consider barriers to access. For example, artists who are not trained expressive arts therapists may not know how to get involved in healthcare facilities, healthcare providers might have preconceived ideas about the nature of arts and culture activities and patients may think they are not skilled enough to participate. Additionally, practical barriers may include diffculty traveling to arts and health programs, lack of funding for programs and inadequate space to carry out programs. Collaborations can yield numerous benefts such as the sharing of expertise, access to resources and greater effciency and effectiveness of service delivery. When the arts and health felds intersect, partnership offers a way to further humanize healthcare settings and empower patients to share their stories and interact with others in different ways. As with any collaboration, success is achievable only when the parties involved communicate regularly, set clear and measurable goals and delineate expectations. Populations being served should also be given opportunities to share their experiences and talk about what best meets their needs. The collection and dissemination of verifable, high-quality data are essential to bolstering the case for continued integration of the arts and culture and health and human services sectors. The most powerful accounts meld quantitative data into a patient s personal journey. In this way, the patient s story humanizes the numbers in data tables, while the data tables can lend verifability to the intrinsic values of arts and culture experience. Community Partnership for Arts and Culture 63 Creative Minds in Medicine Educating the public, healthcare professionals and artists about the intersection. In order to foster and strengthen the intersection between arts and health, it is essential for arts and health stakeholders to be given opportunities to share their experiences and educate others about the different ways arts and health intersect. Since the intersection runs along a continuum that varies according to factors such as engagement, programmatic structure and goals, it is important to think about arts and health defnitions broadly to invite new avenues for participation. When introducing arts and culture into healthcare settings, strategies to ensure the maintenance of sterile environments are essential to protecting the safety of patients. For artists, gaining a shared understanding with healthcare providers during the development of arts and health projects can allow them to customize programming to meet the special needs of patients and understand how to best engage them in arts and culture activities. Conversely, for healthcare providers who are inviting artists to do work in their facilities, orientation sessions can be useful because artists levels of clinical experience with patients may vary. Such training can include primers on privacy requirements, workplace safety regulations, management of emotionally challenging situations and working with different populations. Recommendations for Future Policy The health and human services sector provides assistance to people from all backgrounds at some of the most defning moments of their lives. This white paper has highlighted four overarching views of how arts and culture intersect with the health and human services feld: through arts and culture integration in healthcare environments; direct patient engagement in arts and culture activities; community-based, arts and culture projects that address public health issues; and the incorporation of arts and culture in medical curricula. This paper has also shown a breadth of examples of what is happening between the arts and health felds in Cleveland. While not exhaustive, this white paper s goal was to defne and identify a sampling of the strong body of work that is resulting from collaboration among the wealth of local arts and health assets. While Cleveland s legacy as an industrial city has left it with signifcant challenges, it is also responsible for giving the city key assets that are defning its future. The intersections of its arts and culture assets and health and human services institutions are driving innovative partnerships that are positively affecting the well-being of individuals, as well as the health of the broader place they call home. In order to foster the arts and health connection, a number of policy issues merit consideration: Research. Greater attention must be given to the valuable contributions arts and culture provide to the health and human services feld. Through the design of research studies that quantify both the individual and public benefts of the intersection, practitioners will be positioned to teach others that arts and culture activities are not simply entertainment or something that is nice to have, but are an essential and necessary element of true patient- centered care and recovery. Community Partnership for Arts and Culture 64 Creative Minds in Medicine Communications. All events and activities that illustrate the arts and health intersection must be promoted publicly through outreach to media outlets, medical practitioners and caregivers who may not be fully aware of the intersection s value. Such outreach will further demonstrate the powerful momentum in Cleveland that is uniting the arts and health felds. Opportunities for practitioners to network, share research and discuss best practices must also be frequently organized and made open to all, from those already doing arts and health work to those who are looking to get involved. By uniting the arts and health sectors, greater attention can be called to the specifc needs facing practitioners of arts and health as well as to possible strategies for addressing them. Such networking will also help the arts and health feld build a united force through which common cause issues can be addressed. In addition, strategies to further validate arts and health activities as medical practice, such as the development of state licensures for art and music therapists, can be explored as avenues for obtaining recognition and reimbursements from insurance sources. The development of local, formalized educational programs, such as the University of Florida s Certifcate in Arts in Medicine or Certifcate in Arts in Public Health,258 can help bolster expertise in the work of the arts and health feld. It is also important for colleges and universities to make opportunities available to students from diverse academic backgrounds to learn about creative intersections and the roles their specialized knowledge can play in the arts industry. Conversely, for students studying arts and culture-related subjects, employment opportunities in sectors such as health and human services and community development should also be promoted. Community Partnership for Arts and Culture 65 Creative Minds in Medicine Conclusion Creative Minds in Medicine At this juncture, returning to the World Health Organization s defnition of health is useful Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infrmity. The health of a place is beholden to factors that span the economic, educational, social and environmental needs of the people living there. Satisfying such conditions is one essential element to improving the health of a city and consequently laying the foundation for supporting individual health. However, this is only one side of the equation, because the health needs of each individual are unique to that person s life experiences and the point where they stand on their personal health journey.
A variety of organic dusts from fungal order cheap prednisone allergy shots and headaches, bacterial order prednisone 20mg otc allergy forecast grapevine, or serum protein sources in occupational settings have been identified as etiologic agents of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (79) (Table 25 buy cheap prednisone 10mg allergy medicine dosage for dogs. Several chemicals, including anhydrides and isocyanates, as discussed previously, have been reported to cause hypersensitivity pneumonitis. It is being increasingly reported that rhinoconjunctivitis precedes occupational asthma in many cases (83,84). Immunologic evaluations may provide important information about the cause of the respiratory disease. Skin tests, with antigens determined to be present in the environment, may detect IgE antibodies and suggest a causal relationship ( 86). Haptens may be coupled to carrier proteins, such as human serum albumin, and used in skin tests (78) or radioimmunoassays. In cases of interstitial lung disease, double gel immunodiffusion techniques may be used to determine the presence of precipitating antibody, which would indicate antibody production against antigens known to cause disease ( 79). It may be necessary to attempt to reproduce the clinical features of asthma or interstitial lung disease by bronchial challenge, followed by careful observation of the worker. Challenge may be conducted by natural exposure of the patient to the work environment with preexposure and postexposure pulmonary functions, compared with similar studies on nonwork days. It is important that the intensity of exposure not exceed that ordinarily encountered on the job and that appropriate personnel and equipment be available to treat respiratory abnormalities that may occur. Some advocate the use of peak flow monitoring, whereas others find it unreliable ( 87,88). Evaluating induced sputum eosinophils has been reported to be a potentially useful technique to diagnose occupational asthma ( 89). All known information about the sources of exposure should be sought in the form of previously reported toxic or immunologic reactions. The obvious conclusion from these studies is that early diagnosis and removal from exposure are requisites for the goal of complete recovery. It must be appreciated that life-threatening attacks and even deaths have been reported when exposure continued after diagnosis (1). Sometimes, the worker can be moved to another station; efficient dust and vapor extraction can be instituted; or the ventilation can be improved in other ways, so that a total job change is not required (96). Consultation with an industrial hygienist familiar with exposure levels may be helpful in this regard. It is important to remember that levels of exposure below the legal limits that are based on toxicity may still cause immunologic reactions. Ideally, the working environment should be designed to limit concentration of potential sensitizers to safe levels. Unfortunately, this is impractical in many manufacturing processes, and even in a carefully monitored facility, recommended thresholds may be exceeded ( 97). Thus, avoidance may well entail retraining and reassigning an employee to another job. However, chronic administration of steroids for occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis is not recommended. As exposure continues, sensitivity may increase, making medication requirements prohibitive. Immunotherapy may be feasible in a limited number of patients, with certain occupational allergens of the same nature as the common inhalant allergens; however, it is difficult and hazardous with many agents that cause occupational immunologic asthma. Such preventative measures as improved ventilation and adhering to threshold limits, as discussed under Treatment, would be helpful to this end. There should be efforts to educate individual workers and managers in high-risk industries so that affected workers can be recognized early. It is known that atopy is a predisposing factor to a worker developing IgE-mediated disease (60), but there is at least one conflicting study ( 100). At the first sign of occupational asthma, those workers then could be removed from the offending exposure and retrained before permanent illness develops. Already, medical surveillance has been reported to reduce cases of permanent occupational asthma in Germany ( 102). A cost-benefit analysis suggests that this is also the case in the United States ( 103). Work related symptoms, sensitization, and estimated exposure in workers not previously exposed to laboratory rats. Occupational asthma in Europe and other industrialized areas: a population-based study. Occupational and environmental asthma: legal and ethical aspects of patient management. Prednisone inhibits late asthmatic reactions and airway inflammation induced by toluene diisocyanate in sensitized subjects. Pathomechanisms and pathophysiology of isocyanate-induced diseases: summary of present knowledge. Isolated late asthmatic reaction after exposure to a high-molecular-weight occupational agent, subtilisin. Pulmonary disease in workers exposed to papain: clinicophysiological and immunological studies. Allergy to laboratory animals: epidemiologic, clinical and physiologic aspects and a trial of cromolyn in its management. Allergic respiratory reactions in bird fanciers provoked by allergen inhalation provocation tests. Characteristics of patients with soybean dust-induced acute severe asthma requiring mechanical ventilation. Case report of occupational asthma due to palisander wood dust and bronchoprovocation challenge by inhalation of pure wood dust from a capsule. Immunologic and non-immunologic mechanisms in asthma due to western red cedar (Thuja plicata). A cross-sectional survey of sensitization to Aspergillus oryzae-derived lactase in pharmaceutical workers. The use of an immunoassay index for antibodies against isocyanate human protein conjugates and application to human isocyanate disease. Human leukocyte antigen associations in occupational asthma induced by isocyanates. Serum IgE and IgG to formaldehyde-human serum albumin: lack of relation to gaseous formaldehyde exposure and symptoms. Clinical aspects of allergic disease: occupational asthma in a technologist exposed to glutaraldehyde. Relation between occupational asthma case history, bronchial methacholine challenge, and specific challenge test in patients with suspected occupational asthma. Prevalence and intensity of rhinoconjunctivitis in subjects with occupational asthma. Peak expiratory flow monitoring is not a reliable method for establishing the diagnosis of occupational asthma. Prognostic factors for toluene diisocyanate-induced occupational asthma after removal from exposure.
Supercial thrombophlebitis Denition Incidence Inammation of veins combined with clot formation prednisone 5 mg with visa allergy forecast lubbock. Aetiology/pathophysiology r Thrombophlebitis arising in a previously normal vein Age may result from trauma purchase 20 mg prednisone free shipping allergy symptoms dry mouth, irritation from intravenous Increases with age discount 20 mg prednisone visa allergy medicine homeopathic. Aggravating factors include old age, obesity, re- current trauma, immobility and joint problems. Aetiology The aetiology of most congenital heart disease is un- Pathophysiology known, and associations are as follows: r Genetic factors: Down, Turner, Marfan syndromes. Chronic venous ulceration is the last stage of lipo- r Environmental factors: Teratogenic effects of drugs dermatosclerosis(the skin changes of oedema, brosis around veins and eczema, which occurs in venous sta- and alcohol. Pathophysiology Clinical features Normally in postnatal life the right ventricle pumps de- Distinguishable from arterial ulcers by clinical features oxygenated blood to lungs and the left ventricle pumps and a history of chronic venous insufciency (see Table oxygenatedbloodatsystemicbloodpressuretotheaorta, 2. Investigations Congenital heart lesions can be considered according Phlebography is performed to assess the underlying state to one or more of of the veins. Blood from the left side of the heart is re- Management turned to the lungs instead of going to the systemic Healing often takes weeks, possibly months. Skin grafts may speed healing, but only if venous pres- Clinically lesions can be divided into two categories: sure is reduced, e. Surgery to remove r Acyanotic heart disease, which include the left to right incompetent veins before ulceration occurs. Denition Prevalence Abnormal defect in the ventricular septum allowing pas- Up to 1% of live born infants are affected by some form sage of blood ow between the ventricles. Eventually M = F these changes become irreversible and pulmonary hy- pertension develops, usually during childhood. The re- sultant high pressure in the right side of the heart causes Aetiology areductionand eventual reversal of the shunt with as- In most cases the aetiology is unknown but may include sociated development of cyanosis termed Eisenmenger maternal alcohol abuse. On ex- r Small defects result in little blood crossing to the right amination there is usually a pulmonary ejection mur- sideoftheheartandnohaemodynamiccompromise mur and there may be tachypnoea and tachycardia if maladie de Roger. The murmur is, however, causes a loud pulmonary component to the second quieter as there is less turbulent ow. Initially increased pulmonary blood ow does not cause arise in pressures within the pulmonary circulation Investigations due to the vascular compliance. If, however, there is a r Chest X-ray: Abnormalities are only seen with large defects when cardiomegaly and prominent pul- monary vasculature may be seen. Measurement of the size of the defect and the blood ow allows prediction of the outcome. The shunting of blood from left to right increases the volume of blood passing through the right side of the Incidence heart leading to right ventricular volume overload and 10% of congenital heart defects. Prolongedhigh volume blood ow through lungs can occasionally lead Sex to pulmonary hypertension due to changes in the pul- F > M monary vasculature similar to ventricular septal defects (see page 84). Aetiology Defects in the ostium primum occur in patients with Clinical features Down syndrome often as part of an atrioventricular sep- Atrialseptaldefectsareoftenasymptomaticinchildhood tal defect. On examination Pathophysiology there is a xed widely split second heart sound due to the The atrial septum is embryologically made up of two high volumes owing through the right side of the heart parts: the ostium primum and the ostium secundum, and the equalisation of right and left pressures during which forms a ap over the defect in the ostium pri- respiration. A diastolic murmur may through the fossa ovalis and hence shunts blood away also occur due to ow across the tricuspid valve. In normal individuals Rarely patients may present with paradoxical emboli at birth the vasculature within the lungs dilate at birth (where thrombus from a deep vein thrombosis crosses and hence the right heart pressures fall. Once the left the atrial septal defect and causes stroke or peripheral atrial pressure exceeds the right, the ostium secundum arterial occlusion). Eighty per cent of cases occur in association with a Management bicuspid aortic valve. The defect may be closed using an umbrella-shaped Clinical features occluder placed at cardiac catheterisation. Traditional Proximal hypertension may cause headache and dizzi- open surgical repair requires cardiopulmonary bypass ness, distal hypotension results in weakness and poor pe- and may use a pericardial or Dacron patch to close the ripheral circulation. Surgicalinterventioninostiumprimumdefectsis are weak or absent and there is radiofemoral delay. Four- morecomplexduetoinvolvementoftheatrioventricular limb blood pressure measurement will demonstrate the valves. Coarctation of the aorta Investigations Denition r Chest X-ray may show left ventricular hypertrophy Localised narrowing of the descending aorta close to the and rib notching due to dilated intercostal arteries site of the ductus arteriosus. Pathophysiology Coarctation of the aorta tends to occur at the site of the ductus/ligamentus arteriosus, which is usually opposite Management the origin of the left subclavian artery (see Fig. The Surgical treatment is used in the majority of cases and left ventricle hypertrophies to overcome the obstruction is an emergency in coarctation complicated by a patent and cardiac failure may occur. The chest is opened by left lateral tho- develops with hypotension in the lower body. Prognosis Without treatment 50% of patients die within the rst year of life from cardiac failure and complications of hypertension such as intracranial bleeds. This reduces the right to left intracardiac shunt and provides some symptomatic relief. On auscultation there is initially a long systolic murmur across the pulmonary valve, which shortens as cyanosis develops. Spasm of the infundibular muscle in the right ven- tricular outow tract results in further compromises the right cardiac outow causing worsening cyanosis and often loss of consciousness. Investigations ChestX-rayoftenshowsaheartofnormalsizebuttheleft heartborderisconcave(bootshape)duetothesmallpul- r Right ventricular outow obstruction (pulmonary monary trunk. Aetiology Embryological hypoplasia of the conus, which gives rise tothemembranousventricularseptum. OccursinDown Management r Symptomatic infants may require a Blalock Taussig syndrome and as part of fetal alcohol syndrome. This provides a left to The pulmonary stenosis results in high right ventricular rightshunt replacing the duct as it closes. The degree of pulmonary stenosis isvariable(rangingfrommildtoatresia),thustheclinical picture ranges in severity. The right ventricular outow Cardiovascular oncology tract obstruction is often progressive. Clinical features Atrial myxoma In rare severe cases cyanosis develops within days as the Denition pulmonary circulation is dependent on a patent ductus An atrial myxoma is a benign primary tumour of the arteriosus. More commonly presentation is later with heart most commonly arising in the left atrium. Initially it may only be present on exertion, but as the right ventricu- lar outow obstruction is progressive cyanosis becomes Incidence evident at rest, and the characteristic squatting position Primarytumoursoftheheartarerare,butatrialmyxoma may be adopted. Denition Tumour arising from chemoreceptors at the bifurcation Pathophysiology of the carotid artery.
It is associated with atherosclerosis and dissecting ab- r Cauda equina lesion: Compression below L1 affects dominal aortic aneurysm prednisone 40 mg allergy testing acne. Reexes are loss and may occur in transient ischaemic attacks cheap 20 mg prednisone free shipping kaiser allergy shots santa rosa, which may there is loss of sensation over the perianal region partially recover discount 10 mg prednisone with mastercard allergy symptoms tongue. Management Clinical features Identication and treatment aimed at the underlying Patients may present with clumsiness, weakness, loss of cause. In as many as 20% of cases, the cord compression sensation, loss of bowel or bladder control which may is the initial presentation of an underlying malignancy. Back pain may precede the gent neurosurgical decompression is required to max- presentation with cord compression for many months imise return of function. On Prognosis is related to the degree of damage and speed examination there may be a spastic paraparesis or tetra- of decompression. Bladder control that has been lost for paresis with weakness, increased reexes and upgoing more than 24 hours is usually not regained. Aetiology The cavity or syrinx is in continuity with the central Aetiology canal of the spinal cord. Some cases have been re- ation of the cerebellar tonsils and medulla through the ported post-vaccination. Pathophysiology Pathophysiology The expanding cavity may destroy spinothalamic neu- Inammation may be due to vasculitis, or the preceding rones in the cervical cord, anterior horn cells and lateral infection. Clinical features Mixedupper and motor neurone signs, sometimes in an odd distribution, it is usually bilateral, but may affect Clinical features one side more than the other. The patient trinsic muscles of the hand, with loss of upper limb may complain of a tight band around the chest, which reexes and spastic weakness in the legs. Upper motor neurone changes are loss of pain and temperature sensation signs are found below the lesion. C5 to T1 with preservation torneurone signs are found at the level of the lesion, due of touch. Neuropathic joints, neuropathic ulcers and to involvementofthe anterior horn cells. Other investigations are di- fth nerve nuclei causes loss of facial sensation, classi- rected at the underlying cause, e. Microscopy Disorders of muscle and Affected muscles show abnormalities of bre size, with neuromuscular junction bre necrosis, abundant internal nuclei and replacement by brofatty tissue. Muscular dystrophies Complications Myotonic dystrophy Patients show neurobrillary tangles of Alzheimer s dis- ease in the brain with ageing. Infants born to mothers Denition withmyotonicdystrophymayhaveprofoundhypotonia, Inherited disease of adults causing progressive muscle feeding and respiratory difculties, clubfeet and devel- weakness. Sex M = F Prognosis The condition is gradually progressive with a variable Aetiology/pathophysiology prognosis. Each generation has increased numbers of repeats resulting in an earlier onset and more severe dis- Denition ease. Thegenecodesforaproteinkinase,whichispresent Acquired disorder of the neuromuscular junction in many tissues, the mechanism by which this causes the characterised by muscle fatiguability, ptosis & dys- observed clinical features is unknown. Clinical features Incidence Patients develop ptosis, weakness and thinning of the 4in100,000. The thymus appears to be in- r Nervestimulation shows characteristic decrement in volved in the pathogenesis, with 25% of cases having evoked muscle action potentials following repetitive athymoma and a further 70% have thymic hyperplasia. Management r Myasthenic syndromes can be caused by d- Oral anticholinesterases such as pyridostigmine treat the Penicillamine, lithium and propranolol. Care ference with and later destruction of the acetylcholine should be taken when prescribing other medications as receptor. Thymectomy in older patients ercise increases the degree of muscle weakness, and rest with hyperplasia alone is more controversial, tumours allows recovery of power. This can cause difculty with swal- r Plasmapheresis and intravenous immunoglobulin are lowing and eating the chin may need support whilst usually reserved for severe acute exacerbations. The respiratory muscles may be affected in Severity uctuates but most have a protracted course, amyasthenic crisis requiring ventilatory support. Ini- exacerbations are unpredictable but may be brought on tially the reexes are preserved but may be fatiguable, by infections or drugs. Aetiology/pathophysiology Investigations Antibodies directed against the presynaptic voltage- r Edrophonium (anticholinesterase) Tensilon test gated calcium channels have been detected. The ocular and smell) although this may be found in elderly patients bulbar muscles are typically spared. Test ability of each nos- gravis, weakness tends to be worst in the morning and tril to detect several common smells. The optic nerve Investigations Anatomy r Nerveconduction studies show an incremental re- The optic nerve carries information from the retina via sponse when a motor nerve is repetitively stimulated, the optic chiasm, the lateral geniculate bodies and optic in direct contrast to the ndings in myasthenia gravis radiation to the occipital lobe where the visual cortex is (where there is a decremental response). Vision Management Clinical features Treatment of the underlying tumour can lead to These depend on the location of the lesion (see Fig. Plasmapheresis and intravenous im- Field loss: munoglobulin may be used, and drugs which increase r Eye lesions include diabetic retinal vascular disease, acetylcholine release from presynaptic terminals appear glaucoma, retinitis pigmentosa. The olfactory receptors lie in the olfactory epithelium r Tunnel vision occurs in other conditions, e. The axons form bundles which pass through the Diseasesaffectingtheopticnerveandtherestoftheoptic cribiform plate (ethmoid bone) to the olfactory bulb. The olfactory bulb neurones project through the olfactory tract to the Abnormalities of the optic disc frontal cerebral hemispheres, the medial temporal lobe and the basal ganglia. Denition The optic disc is where the retinal bres meet to form Function the optic nerve. Diseases affecting the optic nerve may Smell cause the disc to look abnormal: 1 Swollen, i. Papilloedema Management This term should be reserved to describe swelling of the Directed at the underlying cause. The increased pressure causes axonal transport to become abnormal, causing swelling of the Horner s syndrome nerves. The term is often used to cover all causes of a swollen disc, but this is the differential diagnosis of papilloedema (see Table 7. Optic atrophy Optic atrophy may follow any damage to the optic nerve, Clinical features particularly after ischaemia, optic neuritis and optic The condition presents with unilateral pupillary con- nerve compression. Associated features Clinical features may include a hoarse voice (due to either recurrent la- The degree of visual loss depends on the underlying ryngeal nerve palsy or lower cranial nerve involvement), cause. Optic neuritis and ischaemic neuropathy typically or signs in the neck, chest or hands pointing to the level cause early visual loss. Location of lesion Examples r Inferior ramus travels with superior ramus, but gives Sympathetic chain Carotid artery aneurysm or branches to inferior rectus and medial rectus muscles.